Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (20 August 1613 – 12 July 1676) was a German poet and composer.

She began studying music at the court of her father, Duke John Albert II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, where there was an orchestra known for its use of fine English musicians, such as William Brade. She moved to the court of Kassel, which also had a strong musical tradition, when the Thirty Years War threatened her court in 1628. In 1635 she married the learned Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. They had three children:

Ferdinand Albert (22 May 1636 – 23 April 1687), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Marie Elisabeth (7 January 1638 – 15 February 1687), married firstly in 1663 to Adolf William, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach and secondly in 1676 to Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Coburg.
Christian Francis (1 August 1639 – 7/8 December 1639).
Elisabeth Sophie was charged with organizing the court orchestra, and at times worked closely with Heinrich Schütz, who was appointed absentes Kapellmeister in 1655. She may have collaborated with him on arias in his Theatralische neue Vorstellung von der Maria Magdalena.

Most of Elisabeth Sophie ’s compositions are hymns or devotional arias. Some of these were published in 1651 and 1667. The one printed in 1651, Vinetum evangelicum, Evangelischer Weinberg, is believed to have been the first music published by a woman in Germany. She also played a major role in establishing large court entertainments, including masquerades, plays, and ballets, to which she at times wrote librettos and music. Her additional involvement in these entertainments is unclear. Two of her dramatic works survive: Friedens Sieg (1642, Brunswick) and Glückwünschende Freudensdarstellung (Lüneburg, 1652).

Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg was her stepdaughter