Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria ((18 September 1862, Alt-Bunzlau, Bohemia, Austrian Empire – 10 May 1933, Schloss Saybusch, Saybusch, Poland) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Archduchess and Princess of Austria, Princess of Hungary, Bohemia, and Tuscany by birth and through her marriage to Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria. Maria Theresia was the eldest child and eldest daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria and his wife Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Maria Theresa married Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria, fourth child and third son of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, on 28 February 1886 in Vienna.  Maria Theresia and Charles Stephen had six children together.