Beatrix (Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard: (31 January 1938) reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 1980 until her abdication in 2013. She is the eldest daughter of Queen Juliana and her husband, Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld. Upon her mother’s accession in 1948, she became heir presumptive. When her mother abdicated on 30 April 1980, Beatrix succeeded her as queen.
Beatrix attended a public primary school in Canada during World War II, and then finished her primary and secondary education in the Netherlands in the post war period. In 1961, she received her law degree from Leiden University. In 1966, Beatrix married Claus von Amsberg, a German diplomat, with whom she had three children: Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands (b. 1967), Prince Friso (1968-2013) and Prince Constantijn (b. 1969). Prince Claus died in 2002. At the time of her abdication, Beatrix was the oldest reigning monarch of the Netherlands.
Beatrix’s reign saw the country’s Caribbean possessions reshaped with Aruba’s secession and becoming its own constituent country within the Kingdom in 1986 as well as the subsequent Antillean Dissolution in 2010, which created the new special municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, and the two new constituent countries of Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
On Koninginnedag (Queen’s Day), 30 April 2013, Beatrix abdicated in favour of her eldest son, Willem-Alexander, and resumed the title of princess.